Church Monuments Society

CMS Members Prizes Monument of the Month CMS Publications Events Monuments Bibliography Resources Links Noticeboard Search this site

The Society is a registered charity. No.279597 Registered Office: The Society of Antiquaries, Burlington House, Piccadilly, London. W1V 0HS Copyright (c) 2016 CMS. All rights reserved.

MONUMENT OF THE MONTH  (like to contribute?  Click here for details)


Click here to go to previous Monuments of the Month



January 2017   February 2017    March 2017   April 2017    May 17      June 17



Monument of the Month    June 2017


Monmouth Town War Memorial


Monmouth town war memorial stands in the centre of St James' Square in a small  garden surrounded by metal railings. It is made of Portland stone and comprises a statue of an infantryman wearing his steel helmet and carrying full kit including rifle, back pack, ammunition pouch and water bottle. He stands on a tall rough hewn pedestal atop a tier of three steps, although originally there were only two steps. The names of the fallen of both world wars and the Korean war are now cast in bronze tablets fixed to the pedestal, though the original WW1 lettering was carved into the stonework ; Figure 1.

The monument was designed by J. Reginald Harding with minor alterations by Harry Gregory of W. Clarke of Llandaff, the firm responsible for its production. Mr. Harding was a civil engineer, the nephew of Lord Llangattock. In 1914 Clarke's had been responsible for making a memorial tablet to the late Lord Llangattock which was erected in Monmouth parish church which had been designed by J. Reginald Harding. The marble bust for this monument was sculpted by Sir William Goscombe John. The statue of the infantryman was modelled and sculpted by William W. Taylor; Figure 2. Mr. Taylor finally received public recognition for sculpting the monument when the Monmouthshire Beacon published his obituary on 1st March 1935.The names recorded on the tablets have been listed on the Imperial War Museum's website (http://www.iwm.org.uk/memorials/item/memorial/3589  accessed 3.12.2016)  and by Ray Westlake (First World War Graves and Monuments in Gwent. Wharnecliffe 2001, pp. 117-9).

History

The story of the Monmouth war memorial can be found in the pages of the local newspaper, the Monmouthshire Beacon. At a meeting of the Town Council on Monday 18th November 1918, a committee was formed to gather subscriptions for peace celebrations and a permanent war memorial for the town. The secretary elect was Mr. George B. Adamson and the treasurer Mr. C. H. Woodhouse. At this time Mrs Howard Arnott donated 100 guineas and by the end of the meeting £310.15s. had been collected. No decision had been made at this stage as to what form the memorial should take. At a meeting in January 1920 Mr. Adamson reported further contributions had been received and the Mayor, Mr. W. Sambrook, put forward the idea of extending the Wye Embankment as a suitable war memorial. This would have involved the demolition of houses and general town improvements. Others felt this was not at all a suitable form for a war memorial.  

By the following April about £400 is stated to have been collected but the committee had yet to organise a general collection. Two designs for a memorial tablet to be placed in the Shire Hall were rejected and the whole question of what form the memorial should take was still unresolved. At a meeting held in July of 1919 the Memorial Committee submitted a report on their considerations of the numerous schemes that had been put forward for a war memorial. Their favoured scheme involved the fencing off of four acres of Chippenham for the purposes of organised games and that the house and premises occupied by the Phoenix Coal Co. be purchased; an entrance made through Chippenham, with entrance gates from Monnow Street; on the pillars of which to be affixed a tablet containing the names of Monmouth men who had fallen. After heated discussion, hingeing largely on who was to be responsible for subsequent upkeep, the report was accepted. The scheme obviously never came to fruition.

Clarke's became involved in the spring of 1920 when Guy Clarke made several journeys to Monmouth. The final design must have been more or less settled by April when Harry Gregory spent some time working on it. In June 1920 the Committee asked for sanction to erect the memorial in Monnow Street and this was granted. However, as late as June 1921 it was reported that the statue in Monnow Street was considered to  constitute a dangerous obstruction. St. James's Square was therefore put forward as an alternative location but some thought this to be too secluded a spot and favoured Agincourt Square as the location if Monnow Street was to be ruled out. The final decision to locate the monument in St. James' Square was reached at a meeting a week later. The decision was swayed by a letter the Committee had received from Mr. Guy Clarke who wrote  "Dear Sir, I have carefully considered your letter of the 30th ult., and must say that I don't consider Agincourt Square a nice or suitable location for the War Memorial. The peacefulness of St James' Square appeals to me against the somewhat crowded conditions and mixtures of Agincourt Square. I don't think even if the Rolls monument were moved to one end and the War Memorial at the other that one could say they would balance and as far as harmony is to be considered. I certainly see nothing in either monument which would harmonize in or with the old building. My father [William Clarke] who knows the position very well quite agrees with the above remarks and I hope your committee will eventually agree to have the War memorial placed in St James' Square gardens. Yours faithfully, Guy Clarke."

Clarke's actually commenced work in earnest in August 1920. William Taylor spent a total of 304 man hours producing a  scale model of the statue in clay; Figures 3a & b and a further 675 man hours on carving it from Portland stone with help from Mr. Ellis. The stone was obtained from Messrs. E. Turner and Sons, Portland. In December of 1920 a temporary shed had to be erected in Clarke's yard to accommodate the works.   Durnell and Llewellyn, with help from Dare worked on the lettering. Unnamed masons worked for a total of 1057 man hours helped by unnamed labourers for a further 566 man hours. Others who worked for a significant period on the project were Sid Pollard and Dando, the latter being responsible for overseeing the installation of the monument.  The carpenter Kingston made a crate for transporting the statue.  The monument was put in place in August 1921 with final touches and cleaning  in September. In total about 3,720 man hours was spent on the project by the firm.  The total cost of day works including materials and all expenses (including 2/- paid for the loan of a rifle) amounted to £583:15:7 and the final bill came to £725, representing a profit of about 24%. Day book and bill book records are appended. An interim payment of £500 was received on 3rd of October but final settlement was not received until 30th January 1922 as more funds had to be raised. An archive photograph of the original monument as installed is shown in Figure 4.

The memorial was unveiled on 6th October 1921 by Major Reade and dedicated by the Rev. Canon Harding. A copy of the programme for the unveiling is held in the archive. The event had full coverage in the local newspaper complete with a photograph taken by C.V. Hyam of the unveiling  and together with portraits of the mayor Councillor A. T. Blake,  Major Reade, D.S.O., M.C. and Mr. George B. Adamson. Before the war Mr. Reade had been headmaster of Monmouth Boys School. He joined the army as a  private at the onset of hostilities rising to the rank of Major. After the war he returned to his former job.

In November of 1921 it was reported that the local Lodge of Freemasons was to bear the expense of adding a granolitic step around the base of the monument and levelling and paving the area in front of it. In October 1922 Mr. Adamson reported that the project had paid off all its debts and the Freemasons had paid for the extra step and paving. It was also suggested by Mr. Horace Bailey that the report of the opening ceremony be reprinted from the Beacon and a framed copy be hung in the Rolls Hall so that future generations would appreciate the achievement and this was duly undertaken.( THE WAR MEMORIAL. Monmouthshire Beacon. 10th November 1922.)


Michael Statham

   













         









Monument of the Month  May 2017


We have been discussing on Council the very complex ethical and legal issues around posting photos (on Twitter and on this web site) of monuments and other memorials. These could be politely described as a minefield. The issues around reuse of monuments are even more complex and intractable. Lutyens’ unfortunate choice of stone for the Commonwealth War Graves memorials means they have to be renewed regularly. The old memorials cannot be reused and are broken up for use as chippings. And what should we do with memorials to those whose activities are now considered to be reprehensible – slave traders, racists, men who in their own day were revered as war leaders and are now considered war criminals? Members will remember the debates over Jimmy Savile’s tombstone when the full horror of his activities became apparent.

Our ancestors were much more relaxed about reusing tombstones. Old churches are full of cross slabs reused as building materials. They made particularly useful staircases, window and door lintels and even doorsteps. Even effigies could be reused. The church at Llanblethian in the Vale of Glamorgan had a late thirteenth-century effigy tomb which was planed off in the fifteenth century and used as part of a buttress in the south-west tower. (It has now been rescued and sits in an alcove in the south chapel, but this is probably not its original location.)

Llanblethian has an even more striking example of reuse, striking because it seems to have been done so soon after the stone was first installed At the base of the tower, fixed against the north wall, is a floriated cross slab commemorating Eme... the wife of Walter Torig.  

Fig 1

The full inscription reads DAME : EME..T : LA : FEMME : WATER : TORIG : GIST : ICI : D[EU : [D]EL : AME : EIT : MERCI . (There may have been a further inscription on the chamfer but it is now indecipherable.) Nothing is known about Eme... or about her husband. The stone is a tapering slab with a single chamfer. This would suggest an early date in most parts of England, but in Wales tapering slabs were still being used in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. The design of the cross, with its knopped arms and large plain fleur-de-lys finials, looks early fourteenth century, and this would also fit with the large Lombardic capitals of the inscription.

The stone was actually found inverted (carved side down) in the south chapel, over a stone-lined shaft containing a skeleton. In a niche in the side of the shaft was a low-grade pewter chalice.

Fig 2

This is the antiquarian C. B. Fowler’s drawing of the shaft and skeleton from his ‘Discoveries at Llanblethian Church, Glamorganshire’, Archaeologia Cambrensis 5th ser. 15 (1898), p. 129. (The article has a lot more detail about the church, including a drawing of the effigy built into the buttress.)

Priests were normally buried with replica chalices, so we can assume that the skeleton is that of a priest and not a woman. The chalice can still be seen, and from its style it is probably fourteenth century – so the tomb slab may have been used to cover the priest’s grave within the lifetime of someone who saw it laid in its original location over Eme...’s grave.


Madeleine Grey



Monument of the month April 2017


Undocumented Sculptures by Sir William Goscombe John

I have, over the last year or so, been engaged in cataloguing and digitising the contents of the firm of W. Clarke of Llandaff. The firm was set up in the 1870s by Llandaff born sculptor William Clarke, son of Edward Clarke, a Bristol born sculptor, who came to Cardiff in c1851 to work for Prichard and Seddon on the renovation of Llandaff Cathedral. William Clarke's great grandson William Michael Clarke (known as Mike) now runs the firm. Bill book and day book records are extensive and date back to the 1890s.  Some drawings and photographs are even earlier, though coverage is patchy.



The project commenced with the photographing of thousands of pages from day books, bill books and notebooks, then moved on to photographing most of the drawings. This part of the project is substantially complete. Indexing has begun but much (boring) work lies ahead if it is to be completed!


This article continues in a word document with footnotes, click here to read it.



There are additional photographs that go with this article and link to the text and footnotes.


Figure 3

Figure 4

Figure 5

Figure 6

Figure 7




Monument of the month March 2017


Thomas Walsh d. 1593 Stockton on Teme, Worcestershire and Francis Walsh d. 1596 Shelsey Walsh, Worcestershire

This month's monument of the month focusses on two similar monuments commemorating members of the Walsh family in adjacent parishes in Worcestershire. They are of an unusual type, being constructed from wood rather than stone, but both heavily painted to disguise the underlying material and to give the impression that they were prestigious stone monuments. The choice of material may have been an economy measure. It is likely that wooden monuments were once less rare than they now appear, but the twin forces of Puritan iconoclasm and decay probably lead to the loss of many. Those that survive, especially examples which imitated stone monuments, are thus of special interest.

The earlier of the two is at Stockton on Teme by the altar and commemorates Thomas Walshe (1593) (Fig. 1). It is the more elaborate of the two monuments, the form being reminiscent of a court cupboard. It consists of a rectangular tomb chest with panelled sides containing painted shields, surmounted by a canopy supported by turned posts painted to give the appearance of marble. It was restored and repainted in 1856.

There is no effigy, but the identity of the person commemorated is provided by an inscription on the back of the tomb reading: 'The tombe of Thomas Walshe esquier Lord of this manor and patron of this church who departinge this life at London the 21 of November his bodye was hither translated the 21 of December A[nn]o D[omin]i 1593 by his cosine jarmaine Thomas Walshe gent his sole Executor the Erector of this tombe'. This is supplemented by a Latin inscription round the edge of the flat top which is partly concealed and difficult to view. This explains that Thomas  was the son of Thomas Walshe, one of the barons of the Exchequer to Henry VIII, and Catherine his wife, daughter of John Saxilby, chief clerk of the household to Henry VII, and Elizabeth his wife; Elizabeth was the daughter of John Gainsford of Surrey. Thomas Walshe, the father of the Thomas here commemorated, was the second son of John Walshe of Shelsley Walsh and Margaret his wife, who was the sister of Sir Edward Blount of Sodington. These inscriptions shows that lineage and descent were important to Thomas or to his cousin Jarmaine who acted as his executor. This view is reinforced by the prominent display of heraldry on the monument. On the flat top of the tomb is a raised shield with the arms of Walshe differenced by a ring. The rest of the tomb is richly embellished by many other shields with the arms of many of his connection and labels giving the names of the families concerned. A warning to the viewer is provided by a brief inscription at the back of the canopy reading 'Such as you are such were we. But such as we are now such shall you bee'. Three delightful skulls apparently gnawing at bones flank and separate the two sentences.

At the northeast of the chancel of Shelsey Walsh church is a painted wood rectangular tomb chest with tapering pilasters and with panels with blank arches enclosing shields (Fig. 2). Again there is no effigy. The flat sunk top has a moulded edge with an inscription on the chamfers inside and outside. It reads: 'Heere lieth Fraunces Wallsh esquire sonne and heire to John Wallsh esquire and Allice the daughter of Cristepher Baynham knight which Francis married Anne the daughter of Richard Cornewhall barron of Barford and had issue 3 sonns and 6 daughters and departed this mortale lif the 19 of July in the year of our Lord God anno Domini 1596'. Like his kinsman's monument, Frances Walsh's chest has a prominent display of heraldry. The shield on the west side has evidently been repainted; it represents Walshe with five quarterings, with the crest, a griffon's head razed and the motto 'Veritaset Virtus Vicinae'. The other shields show the arms of family connections, although they do not have identifying labels. Another touch evidently copied from the Stockton tomb is a memento mori inscription running above these shields. It reads: 'As you are nowe so was I. As I am so shall you be'.

There can be little doubt that the two monuments were designed and carved by the same hand. They are not signed, but Nigel Llewellyn has persuasively suggested that they are the work of the foreign painter Melchior Salaboss, who signed the magnificent painted triptych commemorating several generations of the Cornwall family at Burford (Shropshire) (Fig. 3). This was commissioned in 1588 by Thomas Cornwall, who was the brother of Anne Walsh of Shelsey Walsh.

@ Sally Badham






Obedience Nevitt, 1619, Burwash, Sussex   Monument of the Month: February 2017


The memorial that commemorates Obedience Nevitt at Burwash in East Sussex, seen by those who attended the society's symposium at Herstmoceux last September, is deceptively modest, just four pieces of alabaster, the topmost a half-circle inscribed 'An Epitaphe', the second has an heraldic oval to the left side (the charge recorded as argent a double-headed eagle displayed sable), and on the right 'In memorie of Obedience Nevitt wife of Thomas Nevitt of London Gentleman and daughter of Robert Cruttenden of this parish'. The third and the top of the fourth are occupied by a verse epitaph. Below the final couplet are details of Obedience's life and of the charity her husband confirmed in her memory:-

   { Borne 18 April 1587

Shee was { Married 11 March J604

  { Buried 15 1619

And in whose further memorie Her said

Husband and hath in his life time confirmed to

This Parishe an anuitie of 50 Shillinge eight

Pence to be disposed on Yearlie For ever as

Is declared in a table heareunto annexed

The annexed table is no longer apparent and nor are its contents recorded although charitable bequests to Burwash are included in Thomas's will of 1633 and are still in effect. Obedience's memorial is a cenotaph – she and her husband were buried in London at the church of St Benet Paul's Wharf. Thomas's will made provision for the cleaning of the monument to Obedience he had erected there among a number of charitable bequests and early the next century Strype recorded 'A Table hanging up where a Monument stood before the Fire, for Tho. Nevet, and Obedience his Wife; both good Benefactors to this Parish.'

    Obedience's father had taken a lease of the Burwash forge in 1592 but died in late 1596 or very early 1597 leaving two young sons, three young daughters and a pregnant wife.  Thomas Nevitt, who had completed an apprenticeship to a draper, seems to have been in the service of Sir Robert Sidney, later the Earl of Leicester, from early 1594, initially in charge of Sidney's wardrobe, until Sidney's death in 1626. At some point after the death of James I in 1625 he compiled accounts (Nevitt's Memorial) of the income and expenditure of his master. Amongst the income from the earl's land is this entry:

Receaued of Henry Cruttenden and myselfe for a lease of Halden

and for the woodes there att two seuerall tymes    2520li

In the accompanying text this is referred to as 'purchase of the Lease att Halden by my brother Cruttenden and my self'. If Henry Cruttenden is the man who was in partnership at Cowden in 1638-43 with the ironmaster John Browne, it is likely that that Nevett and Cruttenden bought the lease of Halden and of the woods in order to make iron. A Henry Cruttenden of Burwash, a yeoman aged 40 in January 1632/3, had lived in Burwash all his life and his age makes it likely he was Obedience's brother and Robert Cruttenden's eldest son. Halden is presumably High Halden in Kent, about 20 miles from Burwash. Cowden is around the same distance.

    The verse epitaph appears to be the work of Christopher Brooke, a poet who made his living as a lawyer. Well regarded in the circle around John Donne and, unlike Donne, published in his own lifetime, his work is little-known now. When Sir Thomas Overbury's poems were published a year after his murder, various poets contributed memorial verse to open the volume, each having his initials after his contribution. The penultimate couplet of C. B.'s elegy was:

For him, and to his life and death’s example,

Love might erect a statue ; Zeal, a temple:

very close to the final couplet of Obedience Nevitt's epitaph. The expression 'Exchequers Store' from another verse epitaph by Brooke which once hung over the grave of Elizabeth, died 1597, wife of Sir Charles Croftes, in the church of St James, Clerkenwell, seems to be unique to Brooke as it is used only in that verse and that for Obedience Nevitt.

Neer Nature framed A better wife,
By Lawes Divine Shee squarde her Life;
Shee was not proude, nor High in aught,
Save when to Heaven Sh'advanced Her thought;
Her name and nature did accord,  
Obedient was Shee to her Lord;
And to His Hests Shee did attend,
Wjth dilligence until Her end;

Her hart was an Exchequers store,
Of love to Friends, and Bountie to the poor

Envy Shee strooke dumbe, who might repyne,
But not to reprove Her Vertues so Divine;

  To whose faire Life and Death’s example,

  Love might erect a Statue, Zeale a Temple.


Text and picture: Jon Bayliss

References

Nevitt's Charity:  Parliamentary Papers, House of Commons and Command, Volume 11 (1831), 120

Nevitt's Memorial: http://www.english.cam.ac.uk/ceres/sidneiana/nevitt.htm





Monument of the Month: January 2017

An aweful warning for the New Year.

In the churchyard at Gwyddelwern in Denbighshire is this eighteenth-century chest tomb, commemorating the Rev. Edward Wynne (d. 1745) and his wife Jane (d. 1730).

The tomb has a lovely combination of cherubs and memento mori (the hour glass comes complete with cherub wings), and a chilling warning. The angel on the long side is the Angel of the Last Judgement, blowing a trumpet to wake the dead. The inscription reads 'Codwch y meirw, Dowch i'r farn' - 'Awake, dead, come to the judgement'. According to Bede, these words were written (in Latin) by St Jerome. They appear in the medieval painting of the Last Judgement at Penn (Bucks.) They may be the words coming from the angel's trumpet in the Coventry Doom but there they are just below the margin of legibility. They also crop up in a mixture of Latin and English in the N-town play of the Last Judgement, which begins with the Archangel Michael's call:

Surgite! All men aryse!

Venite ad judicium

The Dreamer's vision of the Day of Judgement in the beginning of Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress includes 'a voice saying, "Arise, ye dead, and come to judgement"; and with that the rocks rent, the graves opened, and the dead that were therein came forth'. Probably as a result of this, the line appears on a number of eighteenth-century gravestones (there are examples at St Michael and All Angels, Elton, Notts.; Dunstaffnage, Argyll; St Columba's, Kingussie; and in in Old Errigal Cemetery, County Monaghan, and in Dromin and Monasterboice, Co. Louth). Our Twitter friend 'Stiffleaf' recorded it on a stone over the door to the nave at Broxbourne, Herts, and suggested that this could have been a reused tombstone. The Gwyddelwern example is the only version on a Welsh tomb that I know of, though Hywel Harris used a slightly different translation, 'Cyfodwch feirw, a dewch i'r Farn',  on the weathervane of his great religious centre at Trefeca (Brecs).

On the east end, around the winged hourglass, is another warning inscription in Welsh: 'Mal yr awr, y mae'r Einioes' - 'Life is but an hour' (thanks to David Hale and Gwen Awbery for help with the translation).

These are unusual inscriptions. The first, 'Codwch y meirw, Dowch i'r farn', is mentioned in Robin Gwyndaf's survey of Welsh monumental inscriptions (http://www.amgueddfacymru.ac.uk/3367, in Welsh), but there are no other versions in the article and nothing about the second inscription.  However, Edward Wynne was an important figure in Welsh literary circles and may have cast the net quite wide for his tomb design. He was the adjudicator at the Bala Eisteddfod in 1738. According to tradition, it was he who addressed the chaired bard (the highest honour at an eisteddfod) with the alliterative line 'Goreu y gyd, gwr y gadair' which has since been used as one of the Eisteddfod mottoes (though the Centre for Advanced Welsh and Celtic Studies at Aberystwyth suggests the infamous Iolo Morgannwg may have made this one up: http://www.iolomorganwg.wales.ac.uk/dylanwad-counterfeit.php)


Madeleine Gray