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Archive of Monuments of the Month October 2011 to June 2012


2011 October

Floor slab of Joost Corneliszoon van Lodensteyn, burgomaster of Delft (d. 31 April 1660), his wife Maria van Voorburch, and their descendants, Oude Kerk (Old Church), Delft (Netherlands), Belgian hardstone, 223 x 136 cm.


   The monument of this month dates from the Dutch Golden Age – the time of Vermeer and Rembrandt. From a monumental perspective Delft owes its greatest fame to the grand marble tomb of William the Silent (d. 1584), which was created by Hendrick de Keijser in 1614-21 and which is situated in the choir of the Nieuwe Kerk (New Church). Yet Delft has two churches, which were both once paved with tomb slabs of varying sizes and quality: more humble memorials perhaps, but nonetheless interesting.

    Commemorative stone slabs date from the time when those who could afford it were buried in individual or family graves under the church floor; a practice which started in the medieval period and which was finally abolished in the early nineteenth century. These slabs came in varying sizes, from small headstones on simple graves to huge slabs that covered family vaults. As Holland has no stone quarries that provided suitable material, slabs had to be imported from elsewhere, such as Őland limestone from Sweden, sandstone from Germany (e.g. Bentheim), and various types of blue hardstone from modern-day Belgium. As such each of the stones covering these graves under the church floor represented a sign of wealth and status.

  The memorial slab which commemorates burgomaster Joost Corneliszoon van Lodensteyn (also spelled Lodesteyn or Lodenstein), his wife Maria van Voorburch and their descendants is one of the most impressive examples in the Oude Kerk (Old Church) in Delft. Situated in the choir of the church, it is still in a remarkably good condition if one considers the inevitable wear and tear from footsteps over nearly four centuries, but there have been significant losses.

    The design of the slab is almost theatrical and laden with symbols. Two curtains are lifted to reveal Death personified, his skeletal figure partly covered by a shroud, who directs his empty eye-sockets towards the viewer. Allegorical representations of Death are frequently found on tomb monuments across Europe in this period. At first sight Death’s head appears to be encircled by a halo, but this turns out to be an ouroboros, a classical symbol that consists of a serpent eating its own tail: it represents cyclicality or eternal return, and thus embodies hope. Death often carries a weapon, such as a spear or a bow and arrow, but that is not the case here. Traditionally he wields a scythe, an attribute that he shares with Chronos or Father Time – the two figures are frequently found side by side – but on this slab the scythe is absent. Instead Death’s skeletal right hand rests upon a fallen hourglass, which indicates that time has come to end for the deceased burgomaster and his family. Yet the burning torch that Death holds in his left hand offers hope: torches were traditionally used in funeral processions and an extinguished torch pointing downwards symbolises death, whereas a burning upright torch represents life.

   Death emerges from a Baroque-style sarcophagus on lions’ feet, which also serves as a cartouche for the epigraph. However, the inscription can no longer be read: this raised part of the stone has been polished smooth by footsteps. Fortunately the text has been recorded:

De rustplaatse van Joost van Lodenstein Cornelisz.

in zijn leven Burgemeester der stad Delft

obiit 21 April 1660, oud zijnde 76 jaaren

en Maria van Voorburch Dirksdochter sijn huysvrouw

obiit 11 Juny 1667 oud 79 jaren;

Joost van Lodensteyn predikant tot Utrecht

obiit 16 Augustus 1677 oud 57 jaren.

Dirk van Lodensteyn schepen dezer stad

en Bewinthebber van de Oost Indische compagnie

obiit 6 Augustus 1679 oud 69 jaaren

en Amelia de Berch Jacobsdochter sijn huysvrouw

obiit 31 Mei 1681 oud 70 jaren.

(The last resting place of Joost Corneliszoon van Lodenstein,

in his life Burgomaster of the city of Delft,

died 21 April 1660, aged 76 years,

and his wife Maria van Voorburch Dirksdochter,

died 11 June 1667, aged 79 years;

Joost van Lodensteyn, clergyman in Utrecht,

died 16 August 1677, aged 57 years.

Dirk van Lodensteyn, alderman of this town

and Director of the East India Company,

died 6 August 1679, aged 69 years,

and his wife Amelia Jacobsdochter de Berch,

died 31 May 1681, aged 70 years.)

   In the upper corners, suspended from ribbons in front of the curtains, hang two heraldic shields for Joost van Lodenstein and his wife Maria Dirksdochter van Voorburch. It is fortunate that these shields have survived: as emblems of a detestable aristocracy, many heraldic devices on Dutch monuments and floor slabs were hacked away during the French Revolution, or when slabs were sold on for re-use. However, their devices have likewise been worn away, even though they were still recognisable in a photograph published in 1938.

    Death was an apt emblem for Joost van Lodensteyn, who was born in 1584, the year that saw the assassination of William the Silent in the Prinsenhof in Delft. Van Lodensteyn filled several public offices during his lifetime. He was alderman (schepen) of the city of Delft in 1640, 1641, 1642, 1647 and 1648, and trustee of the city’s orphanage (weesmeester) in 1644, as well as treasurer (thesaurier) in 1650. He also served as burgomaster of Delft in 1653 and in 1654, the year when a large part of the city was destroyed and many citizens were killed in an event that became known as the Delft Thunderclap. This disaster happened on 12 October when some 30 tonnes of gunpowder exploded that were stored in the former Clarissen convent.

   The grave was evidently intended for family burial. Local registers record the deaths of Van Lodensteyn and his widow Maria, their son Jodocus or Joost, Dirk and his widow Amalia. Jodocus’s body was carried into the choir of the church by sixteen bearers. Ownership of the grave can be traced up to 1827.

Note

  The erosion of floor slabs such as the Van Lodensteyn memorial illustrates the importance of recording what is left of this often ignored aspect of our cultural heritage. The Lodensteyn memorial was photographed by the RCE (Rijksdienst voor het Cultureel Erfgoed) while the medieval floor slabs in the Oude and Nieuwe Kerk in Delft were being recorded on behalf of MeMO (Medieval Memoria Online). The aim of the MeMO project is to catalogue and describe texts and objects that are fundamental for research on memoria, i.e. the commemoration of the dead. Extensive descriptions of these sources will be made freely available through a user-friendly web-based application. See Medieval Memoria Online: commemoration of the dead in the Netherlands until 1580 at http://memo.hum.uu.nl.

Further reading:

● Beresteyn, E.A. van, Grafmonumenten en grafzerken in de Oude Kerk te Delft (Assen, 1938), p. 37, no. 26

● Oosterwijk, S., ‘“For no man mai fro dethes stroke fle”. Death and Danse Macabre iconography in memorial art’, Church Monuments, 23 (2008), 62-87, 166-68.

 See also:

● The floor slabs at Oudewater at http://memo.hum.uu.nl/oudewater/index.html

● De grafzerken van de Sint-Jan te ’s-Hertogenbosch (the floor slabs of St John’s Cathedral at Bois-le-Duc) at http://www.degrafzerkenvandesintjan.nl/

● Graves in the Old Church, Amsterdam, on http://www.gravenopinternet.nl/

Copyright: Dr Sophie Oosterwijk, with thanks to Drs Annemarth Sterringa

CAPTIONS TO FIGURES:  

1. Floor slab of Joost van Lodensteyn (d. 1660), his wife Maria van Voorburch, and their descendants, Oude Kerk, Delft (Netherlands). Photo: Chris Booms, Rijksdienst voor het Cultureel Erfgoed (RCE).

2. Interior of the choir of the Oude Kerk, Delft. Photo: Drs Annemarth Sterringa.  

3. Egbert van der Poel (1621-64), A View of Delft after the Explosion of 1654 (1654), oil on panel, 49.5 x 36.2 cm, National Gallery, London: on the left the New Church and the Old Church tower over the ruins of the city.

 2011 November

 Berengaria of Nevarre

Queen of Richard the Lionheart

in L'Épau Abbey

Travelling Monument – Travelling Queen?

Queen Berengaria died in Le Mans at the end of the year 1230 at about the age of 60, and was buried outside the city in her foundation, the abbey of L’Épau. There is no record of the

exact site of her burial but, as the abbey church itself was not completed until the first half of the 14th century, the grave must have been elsewhere, most likely, as was the Cistercian practice, in the chapter house .The effigy and the original  tomb chest date from the latter part of the 13th century; however this tomb chest is now lost, apart from some fragments which are now fixed to the wall in the abbey.


M de Gaignières Provides Some Clues

In later seventeenth century the French antiquary Roger de Gaignières commissioned artists to record the antiquities of France. At l’Epau the artist was Louis Boudan, who recorded a wall mounted bronze plaque (now lost) with a Latin inscription referring to the foundation of the abbey by Berengaria and stating that in 1609 the Queen was ‘buried in this spot’. This would seem to indicate that the monument at that time stood near the site of the plaque, against the wall of the choir. However, excavations carried out in the mid 20th century did not discover any burial vault or sarcophagus in this area.

 In 1672, according to an inscribed slate (which see below) the monument was moved to ‘a more sacred place’ presumably before the high altar. At this time also a new tomb chest – the

one drawn by Stothard – was constructed. The late 1600's were a period when the abbey had fallen into decay and was undergoing much restoration work.   The several drawings commissioned by Gaignières include one of the monument and a plan showing it to be then situated in the choir. Furthermore a plan of the chapter house shows a series of inscribed stones which, at the end of the 100 years' war, had been laid to indicate the various burials in that place; only one site remained unmarked and that was the vault to the right of the entrance which was discovered in 1960, and which is described below.

Mr Stothard Seeks and Finds

   Charles Stothard, the English antiquarian draughtsman, visited L’Épau Abbey in 1816 to see if Berengaria’s tomb had survived the Revolution only to find the abbey church a ruin and converted into a barn.  He reported that fragments of the tomb chest were found ‘lying about the place’ but the Queen’s effigy was concealed under a ‘considerable quantity of wheat’.

 After ‘many difficulties’ (which he does not specify) and the delay of a year, the effigy was eventually found standing upright in a niche, in excellent preservation apart from the loss of the left arm, parts of which were subsequently discovered. He also reported that Berengaria’s bones were found lying near the effigy. He located three men who had assisted in the destruction of the monument and who told him that it had originally stood at the centre of the aisle at the east end of the church and, although there was no coffin inside the tomb chest, there had been a small box containing bones, some linen, some stuff embroidered with gold and an engraved slate:


This tomb of the most serene Berengaria, Queen of England, the noble founder of this monastery was restored and moved to this more sacred place. In it again were deposited the bones which were found in the ancient sepulchre, on the 27th May, in the year of Our Lord 1672.

This slate was found to be in the possession of a canon of Le Mans Cathedral, which in Stothard’s time was undergoing restoration, and it was suggested to the superintendent of that work that the tomb be moved to the safety of the Cathedral.  

 This was duly carried out in the December of 1821 and the monument was placed in the Chapel of the Crucifix. A bronze plaque was attached to the tomb chest engraved thu


This mausoleum dedicated to Berengaria, most serene Queen of the English and foundress of this monastery, was restored and relocated in this most solemn place and in it were placed the bones which were found in the ancient grave 1672. It was taken from the abbey of Pietas Dei and replaced in the Cathedral Church 2nd December 1821


 In 1861 the monument was moved to make way for that of Monsignor Bouvier and re-sited in the nave. In 1920 it was again moved back to near its original position to make way for a war memorial.  

M. Triger Opens the Box

On this last mentioned occasion (1920) the historian Robert Triger published details of the mortuary chest, which remained in the tomb chest, and its contents. The box was of oak measuring 0.22 m square by 0.17 m in height and carried a Latin inscription painted in black:


The bones of Berengaria 1230-1672-1821-1861

    

   The years describe the box’s various perambulations. The contents were as follows:  

1. A bottle sealed with red wax containing a report of the translation of 1861 and a coin of 1858 and two of 1854.

2. Several long bones wrapped in linen: two matching femurs, a portion of a left tibia, and a portion of a femur belonging to a young girl of between 15 and 16.

3. The above mentioned inscribed slate plate.  

  The chest was then resealed and a new report and several coins of the time added to the contents. Note that fabric mentioned by Stothard had disappeared and there was no report about the translation from l’Epau.

M. Térouanne Seeks and Finds

  M. Pierre Térouanne in June 1960 uncovered in the Chapter House of L’Épau Abbey a burial vault in which, under a pile of debris, lay a skeleton of a woman; this skeleton was correctly articulated having become set into the solidified material in the floor of this vault. Only the skull had become detached and had suffered some minor damage, possible when the vault had been filled in at a later date.  

  The bones were examined in 1963 in the University of Caen’s department of anthropology by a team led by Dr Dastugue, who reported that the skeleton was that of a woman of 60 – 65 years of age and 1.57 m tall. There were fragments of brass attached to the skull which were thought to be remnants of a crown which had been removed at some point.  

  Furthermore the excavations show the foundations of benches around the wall of the chapter house. However there is a break in the continuity of  these around the vault which may well indicate that the monument originally stood over the vault and the space was left for the monks to surround the tomb.

Putting it all Together

From the discussion above we can conclude that Berengaria was buried in the chapter house in the vault discovered in 1960 on which later was placed the effigy on its original tomb chest. During the 100 years war, in fear of the looting that was to come, the monks fled from the abbey taking with them all portable valuables to the relative safety of Le Mans. The monks may then have opened the vault, removed the crown from Berengaria’s head with any other valuables and filled the vault with rubble to hide her skeleton. They may well have removed some bones from the nearby lay cemetery and put them in the tomb chest to act as a decoy preventing the looters desecrating the Queen’s actual grave.   The tomb was moved into the abbey church in 1609 and again in 1679 when the effigy was restored and a new tomb chest constructed. Charles Stothard discovered the monument dismantled in 1816 in the abbey church and it was subsequently moved into Le Mans Cathedral where a bronze inscription was added. Here it was moved several times and the mortuary chest in the tomb chest opened and examined.


All Together Again

In 1984 Berengaria’s effigy was returned to l’Epau without its 17th century tomb chest and mortuary chest. Initially the effigy was placed in one of the chapels in the abbey church and a new base constructed; in 1988 the monument returned to its original place, over the vault in the chapter house. The plate describing its removal to Le Mans Cathedral was reattached to the new base, although now giving a rather confusing account.  


John K Bromilow MInstP

Fontevraud L’Abbaye 2011


2011 December


THE WATTON MONUMENT

AT ADDINGTON, KENT

   The small village of Addington, to the east of Maidstone is very close to the M20 motorway and is the site of the famous Addington Long Barrow, a Neolithic chamber tomb. The parish church of St Margaret contains an interesting collection of brasses dating from c1378 to c1470 in the chapel to the south of the chancel.  However, the real gem is a large wall monument of alabaster, touch and marble to William and Elizabeth Watton that was erected in 1651 but actually commemorates Watton family members from 1527 to 1703. The monument blocks the original east window of the chapel, a feature visible from the outside of the church. The monument is unsigned but can be stylistically attributed to Joshua Marshall.

Monument to the Watton family erected 1651 Addington, Kent

In the centre of the monument are two ovals containing portrait busts of William Watton and his wife Elizabeth (nee Simmonds).  Beneath them are panels of their children; that on the left showing their son William and his wife Margaret kneeling and holding hands. He wears half-armour, with his left hand on an open book on a table, while his right hand is clasped in his wife’s left hand. On the right is a panel showing William and Elizabeth’s three daughters, again kneeling. The first two with their right hands brought to the chests while the third daughter has her right arm linked with the left arm of the sister in front. This last girl is bare headed and wearing a tiny necklace while the other two have veils and no jewellery.

 








Both of the main portrait busts are both shown forward facing. He wears armour, is bare headed and with long hair. A plain collar is seen at his neck and he has articulated shoulder guards and an elaborate engraved breast plate.  Elizabeth Watton, to whom the monument was actually erected, has her head covered by a veil which falls to her shoulders and with small wisps of hair showing at the sides.She also has a shawl over her shoulders that is tied in front. Each panel has small drapes looped in the upper corners while the bottom half of each oval is decorated with heavy swags that are tied at the sides.

On the outsides of the composition are two composite columns that stand on small projecting supports that have (re)painted shields on front. The short bulbous pedestals are decorated with thin bands of drapery that are tied at the front, a feature seen on the monument to Thomas Wilson and wife 1656 at Willian, Herts attributed to Edward Marshall. The columns support an entablature that carries an open segmental pediment on which recline two semi naked female figures while in the centre is a secondary canopy structure, again with an open segmental pediment that has an achievement of arms in the centre and the first of the inscription tablets on the front.

One of the unusual features of this monument is the clear division between the left and right halves of the design from the cornice down. The two large inscription panels have a divider between them showing two shields of arms and two pairs of outstretched clasped hands. This is repeated on the panel between the busts – one shield of arms, one pair of clasped hands and a wreathed skull. Finally, between the two lowest inscription panels is another repeat of the divider, another single shield and pair of clasped hands. The clasped hands are intended as a symbol of union between the Watton and Simmonds families and, being shown above a skull, clearly signifying eternal union – one that death cannot separate.

The attribution to the Marshall’s and Joshua in particular is based on a number of key indicators. The whole style of the monument, the choice of materials, the rendering of the busts and the children all point to it being a Marshall product. Perhaps the most telling reference to the Watton monument being from the Marshall’s yard is in the depiction of Elizabeth Watton. The distinctive style of her bust, with a veil over her head and the shawl worn over the shoulders and knotted or tied in front, is seen on a number of monuments that have been attributed to Edward and Joshua Marshall. The most well known of these are the monuments at St Margaret Westminster, to Mary Brocas who died in 1654 and at Connington Cambridge to Dame Alice Cotton died 1657 by Joshua Marshall. However, the style had been used at least as early as 1637 as seen on the monument commemorating William and Mary Platt at St Pancras Old Church attributed to Edward Marshall.  The semi-naked reclining female figures on the outer curves of the segmental pediment are repeated on the documented monument to Sir Edmund Verney, his wife, son and daughter-in-law at Middle Claydon, Buchinghamshire erected in 1653 by Edward Marshall. The forward-facing wreathed skull is a feature seen on a number of known and attributed Marshall monuments. These include that to George Howe, 1647 at Berwick St Leonard Wiltshire and to Sir Henry Crispe 1651 at Birchington on Sea, Kent, both attributed to Joshua Marshall. The symbol of the joined hands can also be seen above Sir Henry Crispe’s two wives.

There are a total of six inscription panels on the monument. That at the very top reads:-

 Juxta hunc locum iacet

sepultum corpus Edmundi Watton

huiusce loci Armigeri qui

adiunxit sibi Elizabetham

filiam Roberti Arnold, de

Gillingham in comitatu

Cantii Armigeri, obiit Mense

Septembris Anno Dom

1527.

Near this place is buried the body of Edmund Watton of this place Esq.  Who took to wife Elizabeth, daughter of Robert Arnold of Gillingham in the county of Kent esq, died in the month of September AD 1527

Above the bust of William Watton is inscribed:-

In hac Ecclesia, etiam

iacet corpus Thomæ

Watton armigeri, fili

prædicti Edmundi Watton,

qui sibi coniugē habuit

Eleanoram filiam Ed-

mundi Domini Sheffield

obiit Anno Domin 1580

Seputus 20 Iulii

In this church lies the body of Thomas Watton Esq, Son of the aforesaid Edmund Watton who took to wife Eleanor, daughter of Edmund, Lord Sheffield died AD 1580 buried 20 July

Above Elizabeth’s bust is inscribed:-

Hoc sepulcro clauditur

Thomas Watton armiger

filius prædicti Thomæ

Watton, qui uxorem ha-

buit Martham filiam

Thomæ Roper de Eltham

in comitatu Cantii Ar-

migeri, qui ex vitâ hac

emigravit 16 Septembris

Anno Domini

1622

In this sepulchre is consigned Thomas Watton Esq, son of the aforesaid Thomas Watton who took to his wife Martha, daughter of Thomas Roper of Eltham in the county of Kent Esq. who departed this life 16th of September AD 1622

The central inscription panel is inscribed:-

Juxta hoc monumentum etiam sepulturæ

traditur corpus Gulielmi Watton Armigeri

huius manerii domini filii predicti Thomæ

Watton qui duxit uxorem Elizabetham

filiam Johannis Simonds in com Essexiæ

generosi per quam prolem habuit filium

unicum et tres filias viz: Gulielmum Eliza-

betham , Margaretam et Annam Obiit 28

Octobris Anno Domini 1651 huius mortem

deleferunt piissimi liberi mæstissima

coniux Elizabetha, que in memoriam tam

charissimi mariti Hoc monumentum posuit.

 Near the monument is consigned to the grave the body of William Watton Esq, Lord of this Manor, son of the aforesaid Thomas Watton who led to wife Elizabeth daughter of John Simmonds in the county of Essex, gentleman by whom he had issue 1 son and three daughters, viz William, Elizabeth , Margaret and Anna Died October 28th AD 1651 His death deeply grieved his family and his most pious and affectionate spouse Elizabeth who in memory of her most beloved husband erected the monument.

The lower left inscription panel carries the words:-

Hic etiam conduntur reliquiæ Gulielmi

Watton filii supradicti Gulielmi, In uxorem duxit

Margaretam Moreland, quæ 7 liberos peperit

Elisabetham, Gulielmum, Edmundum, Robertum

Thomam, Francescam et Martam

Necnon filiieius, Gulielmi , qui obiit sine prole

superstite AD 1703 Et Mariæ, uxoris eiusdem

Gulielmi filiæ Roberti Fane quæ obiit AD1695

Here is also consigned William Watton son of the above, led to wife Margaret Moreland who bore 7 children. Elizabeth, William, Edmund, Robert, Thomas, Francis and Martha. Also his son William who died without surviving issue AD 1703 and Mary wife of the same William, daughter of Robert Fane who died AD 1695

The lower right inscription panel carries the words:-

Sub hoc marmore etiam depositæ sunt exuviæ

Edmundi Watton, fratris et hæredis Gulielmi

Watton – et Saræ uxoris eius-quibus natæ fuerunt

quatuor filiæ, Elisabetha, Maria, Margareta, Anna

E quibus Elisabetha, tantæ stirpis et tot proge-

nitorum unica hæres parentes sola superstitit.

Under this marble are also deposited the remains of Edmund Watton and Sarah his wife by whom were born 4 daughters, Elizabeth, Mary, Margaret and Anna – of whom Elizabeth out of so many relations and kindred was the only one and sole heiress who survived her parents.

Elizabeth the heiress was twice married and died in 1775.  

The lettering on the two lower inscription panels, while imitating the main panels is clearly painted later, possibly in or after 1703.

The Watton arms Argent, a lion rampant, gules, debruised with a bend, sable, charged with three cross-croslets fitchee argent, is much in evidence on the monument impaled with the arms of the various families into which they married. The Wattons had lived in the parish of Ridley since 1347 and the manor of Addington came into the Watton family when Alice Snette married William Watton in the early fifteenth century. He died in 1444 and was buried in the church.

 

Clive J Easter

2012 January

The monument of Lady MargaretGrey (d. 1330)

at Cogges Oxfordshire

   The parish church of St Mary the Virgin at Cogges (Oxfordshire) is a simple Saxo-Norman structure with aisles added c.1180 and spacious chancel with a crypt of c.1240. By the thirteenth century the church may have served both the parish and the adjacent Cogges Priory. During the 1340s John, 1st lord Grey, added an opulently decorated north chapel to house the tomb of his mother, Lady Margaret. The chapel almost certainly also accommodated a chantry to commemorate her soul, although no foundation document survives.

   The chapel, which has an open arcade to the chancel, was two bays in extent and incorporates a piscina on the chapel side of the eastern impost. The high quality of the workmanship is demonstrated by a frieze of grotesque figures and animals running continuously around the interior, punctuated by corbels representing men and animals playing musical instruments. Originally there were rich wall paintings, but they were removed in the early twentieth century. The windows with sumptuous curvilinear tracery once held painted glass; what little now remains is all in the upper tracery. There were once at least 22 shields that displayed the family connections of Margaret and her son, but these are known only from antiquarian notes. The central panel in the east window held the arms of Grey with an inscription in Lombardic lettering reading ‘LE DAME DE GREY’.

  Margaret was born in 1277 as the youngest daughter of William d’Oddingseles of Maxstoke (Warwickshire). She married first Sir John de Grey, who died in 1311, after which she held Cogges as her principal dower manor. By 1319 she had married Robert de Morby, who survived her. In April 1330 Margaret and her son John were granted free warren at Cogges and elsewhere, but a similar grant only five months later just to John de Grey of Rotherford (Oxforshire) suggests that she had died and the dower had reverted to her son. In 1338 John re-united the manor of Cogges by exchange and it remained in his hands until his death in 1359. He had a distinguished political career and his duties as Steward of the Household would have brought him into contact with craftsmen patronised by the court. This undoubtedly accounts for his choice of high-quality, lavish decoration for the chantry chapel at Cogges.

    Margaret’s tomb is in a highly visible position in the western bay of the arcade separating the chapel from the chancel. In this position it could be viewed from both sides, encouraging both clerics and the laity to pray for her soul. It is carved from the local Windrush Valley oolitic limestone. There were many quarries by the banks of the river. Since Cogges is very close to the river, the stone may have been quarried nearby. The workmen who made the monument were evidently expert in their trade and produced a fine tomb to act as the central jewel in the elegant chapel in which it is located.

  Margaret’s effigy shows her recumbent with her head resting on a pillow supported by two angels. At her feet is a lion, a most unusual choice for a woman; most contemporary effigies of women show one or more pet dogs at the feet. She wears a veil and wimple on her head and neck, and is dressed in a tunic and supertunic covered by a voluminous cloak, which hangs in elegant folds.

 The most interesting element of the tomb, however, is the chest on which the effigy rests. The effigy slab is moulded with a line of ballflower decoration below. On the sides of the chest there is one panel at each end and three on each long side. There are two forms of decoration of these panels, which would originally have alternated, with one panel entirely blank. However, the present arrangement indicates that at some stage the tomb has been dismantled and wrongly reconstructed; it may have been moved from the eastern bay which, as the position of honour, would have been a more likely original location for the tomb. The simpler panels feature shields hanging from lions’ masks, all within a cusped quatrefoil; originally they, like the rest of the monument, would have been painted, but no trace of the arms remains to be seen. The other panel design is far more unusual and may even be unique as they are carved with the symbols of the four evangelists, each holding a scroll on which would have been painted their names. Such symbols often appear at the corners of marginal inscriptions on brasses and incised slabs, but they do not normally feature as a major part of the composition of a monument.

    The evangelist symbols are based on the biblical imagery found in Ezekiel and Revelation. The image of a man or angel represents the Gospel of Matthew and signifies Christ’s human nature. The lion represents the Gospel of Mark and is a traditional symbol of royalty and power, thus denoting Christ the King. The ox or calf, the sacrificial victim, represents the Gospel of St. Luke and highlights the priestly character of Christ’s mission. The eagle stands for the Gospel of St. John, the evangelist ‘who soars to the heavens,’ because his theology is much more developed than the three Synoptic Gospels: just as an eagle soars above the earth, so John’s theology soars above the other Gospels. The symbols for the Synoptic Gospels probably come from how each one begins. The Gospel of Mark opens with the lines: ‘A voice cries out in the wilderness.’ In the wilderness you can hear the roar of the lion for miles around. Matthew’s Gospel opens with the genealogy of Jesus, and represents Jesus’ human roots. The Gospel of Luke opens with the story of Zechariah the high priest, who offered a sacrifice of a bull on behalf of the nation. These symbols were developed as a way of helping people to remember the different Gospels and the perspectives that they took, especially at a time when most people could not read.

Further reading:

J. Blair and J. Steane, ‘Investigations at Cogges, Oxfordshire, 1978-1981: the Priory and the Parish Church’, Oxoniensia XLVII (1982), pp. 37-125.

Copyright: Sally Badham with photos by C.B. Newham and Tim Sutton.


2012 Feburary


The Effigy of Walter Stewart,

Earl of Menteith,

at Inchmaholme Priory, Scotland

 

  The monument of Walter Stewart, Earl of Menteith and his wife Mary, sculptured from the same block of stone, are unique representations of a man and wife in the United Kingdom.  Although very damaged both effigies lie on their sides facing each other, each with an arm extended, embracing each other around the shoulders.  They are both portrayed together as an image of true love and devotion, an amazing illustration when we are so used to looking at the standard knightly and female posture, with the hands held in prayer and the knight handling his sword.  In England the closest we get to this type of loving devotional image between couples is on a small number of effigies, where a hand holding pose is represented; for instance King Richard II and Ann of Bohemia in Westminster Abbey also Ralph and Katharine Green at Lowick, Northamptonshire.

   Walter is represented cross-legged, with the head resting on a single rectangular cushion, wearing a coif, long surcoat and with a large shield on his left arm with his coat-of-arms in relief: a fess chequeé with a label of five points.  Walter was the third son of Walter, third High Steward of Scotland.  He was invested in the lands and title of the Earl of Menteith in right of his wife Mary, daughter and heir of the Earl of Menteith.  He appears to have died about 1296 and his wife 1286 with the monument probably dating between c.1280-1300.  The reason for the damaged condition is that the monument was exposed to the elements but now it is preserved in the remains of the chapter house together with other monuments

 

    Inchmaholme Priory is in the custodianship of Historic Scotland and lies on a small island on the Lake of Menteith and is only accessed by a small motor boat ferry from a nearby jetty.  The island and the surrounding area is one of the most picturesque places one can ever visit.  After visiting the priory the afternoon or evening can be take up by sitting outside the hotel, watching fly-fisherman, and the amazing sight of Ospreys’ from the Menteith Hills gliding over the lake.  

 Mark Downing FSA

 2012 March

Thomas Walwyn (d. 1415) and his Wife

at Much Marcle (Herefordshire)

 

Among the fine tomb monuments in St Bartholomew’s church, Much Marcle, one in the north-west corner of a thirteenth-century chapel, known since the seventeenth-century as the Kyrle chapel, has tended to be overlooked. It is not in its original position. It was previously in the north aisle and before that in the middle of the chancel but that was not necessarily its original position.

 

The monument is carved from Painswick stone from Gloucestershire and is probably a locally made product. It is in good condition, but has probably been ‘tidied up’ in a restoration at some time. Two finely carved figures of a man in armour and his wife rest on a panelled tomb-chest. Two sides of the tomb chest can be seen, although it is entirely possible that carved  panels are also on the sides against the walls. Rectangular panels decorated with shields suspended from brackets alternate with square panels with angels holding shields hung on straps around their heads. There was originally a fine heraldic display painted on them proclaiming the identity of the couple commemorated. However, all traces of paint have long since been scrubbed away and no record remains of what was once shown.

The monument has traditionally thought to be to Hugh, Lord Audley who died in 1325. However, it clearly dates from nearly a century later. If it was a monument of c. 1325 the man would have been shown in a textile gown over mail, with very little plate armour, except perhaps to protect his elbows and knees. But the military effigy at Much Marcle wears plate armour consisting of two lame spaudlers, vambraces, couters with scalloped side-wings and two additional lames above and below, plate gauntlets, cuisses, greaves, sabatons and poleyns, which have a mail fringe below. Over the torso is a short, tight-fitting coat armour (a so-called jupon). The head is protected by a pointed basinet, while an aventail and gorget below protect the neck. This armour points to a date in the early-fifteenth century. This dating is reinforced by the fact that early fourteenth-century effigies are usually shown cross-legged, but here the legs are straight.

The lady’s dress is also wrong for a date of c. 1325. She wears a houpelande, which is gathered tightly under the bust, with wide hanging sleeves; this garment was fashionable c. 1380-1420. The houplelande shown here stands clear of the neck and opens slightly at the top, an early-fifteenth century development. Her hair is bound in cauls, with a padded circular roll shown on top. This was fashionable at the turn of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries.  The most likely candidates for this tomb monument are Thomas Walwyn (d. 1415) and his wife, Isabella Hathaway. He was the elder son of Richard Walwyn of Stoke Edith and Johanna de Helyon, the daughter of Walter de Helyon, whose wooden effigy remains in Much Marcle church and from whom the couple inherited Hellens, a mansion in Much Marcle. Thomas died in 1415. His will is one of the earliest written in English. He asked to be buried in Much Marcle church, but made no mention of a monument, which could have been already prepared in his lifetime. He asked for some land to be sold; of the proceeds one third was used to fund the making of the steeple of Much Marcle church. The rest would be devoted to good works which would benefit his soul; in his case he chose poor prisoners, neighbouring poor and the marriage of young women. Thomas also left land to found a perpetual chantry in Much Marcle church. Where this chantry was located in Much Marcle church we do not know, although the Kyrle chapel is a possibility.

Sally Badham


2012 April

 

Lady Barbara de Mauley

St Nicholas, Hatherop

 

One of the most beautiful memorial monuments in Gloucestershire is that to Barbara, Lady de Mauley by the Italian sculptor Raffaelle Monti in St Nicholas Church, Hatherop. The church which was rebuilt for Lord de Mauley in 1854-5 by Henry Clutton incorporates a separate Gothic Revival  mortuary chapel specifically for his wife's monument.   Lady de Mauley died in 1844 and the monument was executed in 1848. Originally buried at Canford, Dorset her body was moved to St Nicholas at the same time that Lord de Mauley rebuilt Hatherop Castle which is situated close by. Hatherop Castle was left to Lady de Mauley by her grandfather, Sir John Webb, when he died in 1797.

 The monument and chapel are both influenced by the Gothic Revival movement of the time.  The  white marble recumbent sculpture depicts Lady de Mauley in the pose of 'not dead but asleep' so beloved in the 1800's.  Wearing a Victorian neo-medieval dress she lies serenely, carved in beautiful natural detail, on a mock Gothic tomb-chest which is flanked by two free-standing kneeling 'guardian angels' one gazing down at her while the other looks to Heaven. The tomb-chest as well as the two plinths bear inscriptions.  Lady Barbara died at the age of 55 but is portrayed  as a young woman.  Is this a reference to the medieval practice of showing women at an idealised age of thirty, the age at which it was believed Christ died and hence would be at the Resurrection?   Or did Lord de Mauley wish to remember his wife at the time they married?  It is unlikely that Monti ever met Lady de Mauley but there was a portrait by the fashionable painter John Hoppner (1758-1810) which could have been used to obtain her likeness.  Lady de Mauley was the daughter and sole heiress of the 5th Earl of Shaftesbury.  She married William Ponsonby, the 3rd son of the 3rd Earl of Bessborough, in 1814 when she was 25.  When he was created a Baron at the time of the Coronation of Queen Victoria in 1838 he revived the Mauley Barony in his wife's family, that was created by writ in 1295 but became extinct in 1415. He added the 'de' for Gothic effect thus returning the name to its original form.   

The monument, the chapel and the sculptor are all of interest.  Although rosaries were not uncommon on monuments in the Middle Ages they disappeared from monuments at the time of the Reformation along with other 'popish' symbols.  It is therefore surprising to find that Lady de Mauley is shown with a cross and in her left hand holds a rosary, which may be unique in a monument of this time.  It is known that the de Mauleys were 'high church' and Hatherop was a centre of Roman Catholicism between the late 17th and early 19th centuries.  When Sir John Webb was living at  Hatherop Castle it contained a Roman Catholic chapel.  So it is possible that the de Mauleys may have requested a rosary;  alternatively it may have been due to the Italian sculptor not appreciating English sensibilities.   On her left arm Lady de Mauley wears a bracelet depicting a serpent biting its tail.  The Ponsonby crest does contain a serpent but here it is more likely to be the well known symbol for eternity, representing immortality, which was fashionable at the time.

 

The mortuary chapel too, is unusual.  It was designed in a flamboyant French Gothic style most likely by William Burges.    It is also likely that he was responsible for the frieze that extends around the chapel featuring leaves, flowers and some motifs associated with Lady de Mauley.    Above Lady de Mauley the frieze contains the letter 'B' for Barbara and to its right is shown a butterfly.  The butterfly represents the soul rising to Heaven and occurs on a number of Victorian memorials and paintings.   The frieze also contains a number of  towers which are an allusion to the patron saint of Lady de Mauley, St Barbara.   This is another Gothic Revival feature as there are examples from the medieval age where the patron saint of the deceased appears on monuments.

Although the  existence of St Barbara is of doubtful veracity her cult became popular in the Middle Ages especially in France.  It was claimed that Barbara's father imprisoned her in a tower so no man could see her.  She subsequently converted to Christianity and eventually died a virgin-martyr.  As a punishment for his cruelty her father was struck dead by lightening.  This led to St Barbara becoming the patron saint of those who could suffer sudden death such as miners and gunners.

The sculptor Raffaelle Monti was born in Switzerland in 1818, brought up in Milan and died in London in 1881.  He was a member of the Risorgimento (the Resurgence) a movement formed to fight for independence of Italy from the Austrians.   As a senior officer of the National Guard of Milan he fled to England in 1848 when the Italians were defeated at the Battle of Custozza.  He carved the de Mauley monument in the same year.  He had visited England prior to this when he carved the 'The Veiled Vestal', a young woman wearing a veil, for the 6th Duke of Devonshire.   This statue is on display at Chatsworth House and was instrumental in bringing him to the attention of the British public.  Like many of the sculptors of his time as well as accepting commissions for sculptures, he designed for many well known companies such as Garrards.  Parian statuettes and busts of his designs were produced by Copeland and Wedgwood.   In 1860 he assigned the production of his 'Veiled Vestal' to Copeland from which they produced the bust known as 'The Bride'.   Also like a number of other sculptors he found it difficult to make a living, becoming impoverished towards the end of his life and having to sell his tools to raise money.  

The enduring appeal of his work can be gauged by the fact that an original Parian bust of  'The  Bride'  was recently sold at a local auction, realising £822.  About the same time another Parian bust sold on ebay for £1500, where modern reproductions in Carrara marble were also for sale at a price of £90.   

During a visit in the summer of 2011 we were dismayed to find that one of the wings was broken.  The bottom part was lying on a ledge behind the monument.  Returning in January 2012 we were delighted to find the wing had been repaired.  Now that the monument has been restored to its former glory it will continue to enchant all those who see it.

 

 Notes:-    

The monument and chapel are described in Nicholas Penny's book, Church Monuments in Romantic England.    

General details  on the life and works of Raffaelle Monti can be found in A Biographical Dictionary of Sculptors in Britain 1660-1851, edited by Ingrid Roscoe, Emma Hardy and M G Sullivan.   

We thank the Cotswold Auction House Ltd for permission to reproduce their photograph of  'The Bride' used in their sale catalogue.  

Joan and Robert Tucker

2012 May

The tomb of John Marshall in

Llandaff Cathedral

The tomb of Bishop John Marshall (d 1496) in Llandaff Cathedral is at first sight a questionable candidate for Monument of the Month. The effigy is a frankly undistinguished piece of carving. It lies on a plinth which is far too wide for the effigy, on a chest which seems to be made up of scraps of left-over tracery panels, wedged between a pillar and the entrance to the north choir aisle. Stuck on the east end of the plinth is a strange little panel with a very crudely carved Image of Pity surrounded by the Instruments of the Passion. There is no inscription (or at least, no inscription survives) but it is identified as Marshall’s tomb by the coat of arms (now lost) which Browne Willis’s informant William Wotton recorded in 1719.

In art as in literature, though, it is often the artistically second-rate which has the most potential for the historian. The Marshall tomb is full of puzzles for the history detective. Unravelled, its imagery can make a valuable contribution to our understanding of late medieval spirituality.

 Marshall’s tomb is not mentioned in Richard Symonds’ invaluable account of his tour of duty in south Wales in the summer of 1645. It is however marked in its present location and identified as ‘Bishop Marshall’s monument’ by Browne Willis. This is also the location Marshall asked for in his will, ‘in the north part of the steps of the high altar in the choir of the said cathedral church’.

When Wotton saw it the tomb had probably already suffered some reordering: the plaque with the Image of Pity was by then affixed to the east end, presumably in its present rather anomalous position near the base of the plinth. However, Wotton described the coat of arms as being ‘in the wall’. By this he may simply have meant the side panel of the chest. However, it is also possible that when he visited the cathedral there was a wall between the pillars north of the choir similar to the wall which still stands south of the choir. Wotton also described a ‘door’ west of the tomb and leading into the north choir aisle, opposite the door which still leads from the south of the choir to the chapter house. This door has now been replaced by a comparatively modern wrought iron gate. The west face of the tomb chest has a pilaster, scored at the top and with patches of mortar. This could have continued up to form an arch within which a door could have been set.

Crudely carved though it is, the effigy is full of interest. The bishop is shown in full pontificals, his crozier tucked into his right arm. His eyes are clearly wide open. His hands are raised, not in prayer or blessing but held slightly apart in adoration. What is he looking at?

After the British Archaeological Association visited the cathedral in 2004, Philip Lankester and I had a lengthy and illuminating email correspondence about this tomb. Philip’s initial suggestion was that the effigy might originally have been destined for the alcove tomb in the north wall of the north choir aisle which now houses an effigy traditionally identified as Bishop Edmund Bromfield (d. 1393). The effigy is in fact about a hundred years earlier in style (for a detailed analysis see Rhianydd Biebrach, ‘The Medieval Episcopal Monuments in Llandaff Cathedral’, Archaeologia Cambrensis 159, 2010). The niche, though, is later, probably fifteenth century, and incorporates a carving of the Image of Pity in the eastern soffit of the arch as well as a plaque of the Instruments of the Passion on the back wall. We wondered whether the Marshall effigy might have been designed to look at the Image of Pity. But the alcove is some way away from the altar steps, and Marshall is carved looking at something immediately above his head.

 

The tomb chest in its present form is clearly a patchwork and has presumably been reconstructed at least once. It is possible, though, that the plinth on which the effigy rests is part of the original. At the four corners are pillar bases, those at the east end being scored and with traces of mortar. These could have supported a tester over the tomb. This might also explain the unusual width of the plinth. It is at least possible that the plaque of the Image of Pity was originally incorporated in such a tester, vertically above the effigy and hence within its direct field of gaze. There are analogies in tombs elsewhere. The effigy of Bishop Walter de Stapledon in Exeter Cathedral looks up at the Image of Pity painted on the tester of his tomb. At Long Melford in Suffolk the effigy of the rebuilder of the church, John Clopton, looks up at a standing figure of the resurrected Christ, blood streaming from his hands, feet and side. The Llandaff plaque is less graphic in its present form but it is of course quite likely that it was originally painted.

 Crudely carved though it is, this little plaque has a very full enumeration of the Instruments of the Passion. As well as the hammer, nails and pincers, the spear, the cross and the crown of thorns, it depicts the cockerel on the pillar, the scourges, ladder, dice and sponge, and the palms of the Entry into Jerusalem. It also has a hand upraised to strike, though not the sword, the money-bag, the seamless robe and the pestle and mortar which appear on the ‘Bromfield’ tomb.

We are perhaps especially prone in Wales to read depictions of Christ’s wounds and the Instruments of the Passion through the refracting lens of our Nonconformist heritage of hell fire and damnation preaching and to assume that they are intended to inspire guilt and fear. As the Book of Revelation warns, ‘Behold, he is coming with the clouds, and every eye will see him, all who pierced him; and all tribes of the earth will wail on account of him’. But John Marshall’s ecstatic expression and the text on the Clopton tomb make it clear that the Image of Pity is an image of hope.  The resurrected Christ at Long Melford holds a banner reading Omnis qui vivit et credit in me non morietur in aeternum – ‘All who live and believe in me shall not die eternally’.  The Instruments depicted on both the Marshall and the ‘Bromfield’ tombs resonated with the Old Testament readings for the Holy Week liturgy: ‘I gave my back to the smiters, and my cheeks to them that plucked off the hair: I hid not my face from shame and spitting’. Marshall’s choice of location for his tomb might even have been intended to place it near the Easter sepulchre, linking his burial with a profound meditation on the twin mysteries of redemption and resurrection.

 

Members will be able to see the Marshall tomb and the other episcopal and lay monuments when we visit Llandaff Cathedral as part of this summer’s conference in Cardiff. We can then explore these ideas further.

Dr Madelein Gray PhD FRHistS

2012 June


The double tomb monument to Reinoud III van Brederode (d. 1556) and Philippote van der Marck (d. 1537) in Vianen (Netherlands)

Few tombs from the Middle Ages and the early modern period remain in the Netherlands and only two of these are so-called double-decker tombs, i.e. consisting of an upper and a lower plane. One of them is located in the Grote Kerk in Vianen, a town situated to the south of Utrecht on the river Lek (fig. 1). The monument, which can be confidently attributed to the sculptor Colijn de Nole, was commissioned by Reinoud III van Brederode and intended to commemorate himself and his wife Philippote van der Marck, who had died in 1537. The monument was placed in the family chapel which was built after the earlier church had been destroyed by fire in 1540.  

The tomb is still in its original location while at its east end there is a sculpted stone retable that also belongs to the original furnishings of the chapel (fig. 2). The only remaining inscriptions are located on a screen that separates the chapel from the nave of the church. The text on the inner side states that the chapel was intended for ‘the illustrious lords and ladies Van Brederode and Van Vianen’, while the outer side features the founder’s personal motto and the year 1542. Unfortunately all written sources concerning the liturgical practices in the chapel have been lost.

The lower plane of the tomb supports a single cadaver effigy, lying on a reed death mat. The cadaver is shown with the mouth open as if in a convulsion. The remains of the organs are visible inside the chest and stomach cavity, and snake-like animals crawl through and over the corpse. On the black marble plinth above lie two life-sized sculptures that represent the chapel’s founder and his wife. They are clad in shrouds, their heads rest on pillows and their facial expressions are peaceful. Both at their heads and at their feet we find decorated pedestals with two tall angels on top, holding a burning torch as a symbol of eternal life (fig. 3). Four putti kneel on the corners of the marble plinth. With one hand they support the escutcheon of each of the couple’s parents and with the other they extinguish an inverted torch, a symbol of the transience of earthly life

The tomb was originally painted and remnants of polychromy are still visible. An article published in 1885 describes the state of the monument prior to the 1877 restoration as appalling. Its author mentions ‘a horrible brown skeleton with gilded worms on top of it or inside’. However, the question is whether this description refers to original polychromy. In 1828 the tomb had been repaired with plaster and putty before being covered in a thick coat of paint that was removed in 1877, together with what remained of the original colour.

 Reinoud III van Brederode was an influential and wealthy man. He was born in 1492 as a son of Walraven II van Brederode and Margaretha van Borselen. Reinoud succeeded his father as lord of Ameide and Vianen in 1531. He developed a good relationship with Emperor Charles V, serving as his chamberlain and counsellor, and he often attended the court in Brussels; he was also made a Knight of the Golden Fleece in 1531. His wife Philippote van der Marck had been a lady-in-waiting with Charles V’s sister Margaret of Austria before her marriage. She was a daughter of Robert II van der Marck and Catharina de Croy, a descendant of one of the most powerful families of the Southern Netherlands. Reinoud and Philippote had ten children together: five sons and five daughters.

On the retable in the family chapel Reinoud, Philippote and their children are shown kneeling on either side of a now missing image of Christ’s Resurrection. The figure of Reinoud can be identified by his chain of the Order of the Golden Fleece. The survival of this retable, albeit in a damaged state, is quite remarkable. Hendrik van Brederode, who succeeded his father Reinoud III as lord of Vianen, was drawn to the new doctrine of Protestantism. He became one of the most foremost rebels against the Spanish domination. It was under his command that the church of Vianen was cleansed immediately in 1566, the year of Iconoclastic Fury in the Netherlands. However, there is no evidence that the iconoclasm was accompanied by violence and destruction in Vianen. A preserved inventory from 1567 shows that some of the church furnishings were moved to Castle Batestein, the residence of the Van Brederode family, but the monument and retable were left in place. Local Roman Catholics were allocated a different venue in the city of Vianen in which to practise their religion

The tomb monument that was built for Reinoud III van Brederode and his wife is part of the furnishings of a family chapel in which the living could commemorate the deceased members of the family, thereby closing the circle of life and death. In the chapel they belonged to a single group. Collectively they could attend Mass and the living could pray for the salvation of the souls of the dead. So the furniture of the chapel fits well in the tradition of medieval memoria. In addition, the tomb and retable showed the importance and wealth of the Van Brederode family. Reinoud died in 1556 and was buried near his wife. Yet the chapel did not immediately fall into disuse when the church became a Protestant place of worship, for the tomb vault remained in use until 1679, the year in which the last male descendant was buried there.

The Van Brederode monument and the retable are two of the objects that have been inventoried and described as part of the MeMO (Medieval Memoria Online) project that is currently being carried out in the Netherlands. See:

http://memo.hum.uu.nl/

http://memo.hum.uu.nl/oudewater/index.html

Further reading:

 

- Hoffman-Klerkx, E.L., ‘Het raadsel van Vianen’, Bulletin van de Stichting Oude Hollandse Kerken 34 (1992), 3-8.

- Kloek, W.T. en W. Halsema-Kubes en R.J. Baarsen, Kunst voor de Beeldenstorm (deel 1), ‘s Gravenhage 1986, 101-102.

- Meyere, J.A.L. de, Het grafmonument van Reinoud III van Brederode in de Grote Kerk te Vianen, Utrecht 2010.

- Oosterwijk, Sophie, ‘Food for worms – food for thought. The appearance and interpretation of the ‘verminous’ cadaver in Britain and Europe’, Church Monuments 20 (2005), 40-80.

Fig. 1. Tomb of Reinoud III van Brederode and Philippote van der Marck, Grote Kerk, Vianen (Netherlands), 1540-1545, black limestone, Baumberg stone and Avesnes stone, 255 x 176 x 286 cm (photo: author).

Fig. 2. Retable, Grote Kerk, Vianen (Netherlands), 1540-1545, Avesnes Stone, 220 x 198 x 59 cm. (photo: Rijksdienst voor het Cultureel Erfgoed).

Fig. 3 Pedestal with angels and torch, detail tomb (photo: author).

Trudi Brink